Design and Dynamic Modelling of a Hybrid PV-battery System for a House with an RO Water Desalination Unit in Iran


  •   Mohammad Mousavi

  •   M. Tariq Iqbal


Energy crisis and power shortage are major concerns in Iran nowadays, where people experience several blackouts during the day. On the other hand, potable water scarcity is another trend in Iran. In this study, the design and dynamic modelling of a stand-alone hybrid PV-Battery-RO system are discussed for a house in Sinak village, Tehran, Iran. Site characteristics are analyzed in the first part to estimate the house load and deferrable RO load. In the second part, the system has been modelled in HOMER pro software to determine the size of the photovoltaic panels and battery. Moreover, complete electrical details of the system such as system autonomy, unmet load and excess energy have been described. In the third part, dynamic modelling of the small-scale RO unit based on a transfer function is described. The introduced transfer function correctly simulates the system's output flow rate in response to input water pressure variations. Electrical dynamic modelling of the PV- battery system has been designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results prove that introduced model can simulate the system's behavior in four conditions: normal operating conditions, zero irradiance conditions, maximum irradiance conditions, and net-zero energy conditions. The battery supports the system, and PV arrays power the loads with a fixed and stable voltage and frequency in all the conditions.

Keywords: Dynamic modelling, PV-battery system, RO system, HOMER Pro, Renewable energy


Baykara SZ. Hydrogen: A brief overview on its sources, production and environmental impact. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2018 Jun; 43(23):10605–14. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.02.022.

Ammari C, Belatrache D, Touhami B, Makhloufi S. Sizing, optimization, control and energy management of Hybrid Renewable Energy System—A Review. Energy and Built Environment. 2021 May. doi: 10.1016/j.enbenv.2021.04.002.

Khan MAM, Rehman S, Al-Sulaiman FA. A hybrid renewable energy system as a potential energy source for water desalination using reverse osmosis: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2018 Dec; 97:456–77. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.08.049.

Alghoul MA, Poovanaesvaran P, Mohammed MH, Fadhil AM, Muftah AF, Alkilani MM, et al. Design and experimental performance of brackish water reverse osmosis desalination unit powered by 2 kw photovoltaic system. Renewable Energy. 2016 Aug; 93:101–14. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.015.

Najafi G, Ghobadian B, Mamat R, Yusaf T, Azmi WH. Solar energy in Iran: Current state and outlook. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015 Sep; 49:931–42. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.056.

Caldera U, Bogdanov D, Fasihi M, Aghahosseini A, Breyer C. Securing Future Water Supply for Iran through 100% renewable energy powered desalination [Internet]. International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. 2019 [cited 2022Jan12]. Available from:

Banat F, Qiblawey H, Nasser QA-. Design and operation of small-scale photovoltaic-driven reverse osmosis (PV-ro) desalination plant for water supply in rural areas. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering. 2012 Oct; 01(03):31–6. doi: 10.4236/cweee.2012.13004.

Mostafaeipour A, Qolipour M, Rezaei M, Babaee-Tirkolaee E. Investigation of off-grid photovoltaic systems for a reverse osmosis desalination system: A case study. Desalination. 2019 Mar; 454:91–103. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2018.03.007.

Haratian M, Tabibi P, Sadeghi M, Vaseghi B, Poustdouz A. A renewable energy solution for stand-alone power generation: A case study of khshu site-iran. Renewable Energy. 2018 Sep; 125:926–35. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.02.078.

Mirzaei Darian MM, Ghorreshi AM, Hajatzadeh MJ. Evaluation of Photovoltaic System Performance: A case study in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment. 2020 Feb; 11(1):75–8. doi: 10.5829/ijee.2020.11.01.12.

Aminy M, Barhemmati N, Hadadian A, Vali F. Design of a photovoltaic system for a Rural House. 2012 Second Iranian Conference on Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation. 2012; 18–22. doi: 10.1109/ICREDG.2012.6190460.

Iqbal A, Iqbal MT. Design and analysis of a stand-alone PV system for a rural house in Pakistan. International Journal of Photoenergy. 2019 Apr23; 2019:1–8. doi: 10.1155/2019/4967148.

Jayalakshmi NS, Gaonkar DN, Balan A, Patil P, Raza SA. Dynamic modeling and performance study of a stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery supplying dynamic load. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2014; 4(3):635–40.

ISpring RCC7P-AK under Sink 6-stage reverse osmosis drinking filtration system and water softener with alkaline remineralization, and Pump [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan12]. Available from:

Singh A, Baredar P, Gupta B. Computational Simulation & Optimization of a solar, fuel cell and biomass hybrid energy system using homer pro software. Procedia Engineering. 2015; 127:743–50. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.11.408.

Gambier A, Krasnik A, Badreddin E. 2007 American Control Conference. In: Dynamic Modeling of a Simple Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant for Advanced Control Purposes. IEEE; 2007. p. 4854–9. doi: 10.1109/ACC.2007.4283019.

Chithra K, Srinivasan A, Vijayalakshmi V, Asuntha A. PID Controller Tuning in Reverse Osmosis System based on Particle Swarm Optimization. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology (IJRASET). 2015; 3(5):351–8.

Riverol C, Pilipovik V. Mathematical modeling of perfect decoupled control system and its application: A reverse osmosis desalination industrial-scale unit. Journal of Automated Methods and Management in Chemistry. 2005; 2005(2):50–4. doi: 10.1155/JAMMC.2005.50.

Sobana S, Panda RC. Review on modelling and control of desalination system using reverse osmosis. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology. 2011 Jun11; 10(2):139–50. doi: 10.1007/s11157-011-9233-z.

Tamrakar V, S.C G, Sawle Y. Single-diode and two-diode PV cell modeling using MATLAB for studying characteristics of solar cell under varying conditions. Electrical & Computer Engineering: An International Journal. 2015 Jun30; 4(2):67–77. doi: 10.14810/ecij.2015.4207.

Jiang B, Iqbal MT. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an isolated hybrid power system in a rural area of China. Journal of Solar Energy. 2018 Jun3; 2018:1–13. doi: 10.1155/2018/5409069.

Srilatha A, Kondalu M, Ananthasai S. Non-Inverting Buck–Boost Converter for Charging Lithium-Ion Battery using Solar Array. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR). 2014 Jun; 3(11):2364–9.

Dowlatabadi R, Monfared M, Golestan S, Hassanzadeh A. Modelling and controller design for a non-inverting buck-boost chopper. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, pp. 1–4, 2014, doi: 10.1109/ICEEI.2011.6021735.

D. Rezzak, A. Sitayeb, Y. Houam, K. Touafek and N. Boudjerda, "A New Design of Lead-Acid Battery Charger Based on Non-Inverting Buck-Boost Converter for the Photovoltaic Application," 2018 6th International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), 2018, pp. 1-7, doi: 10.1109/IRSEC.2018.8703034.

Ogudo KA, Umenne P. Design of a PV Based Power Supply with a NonInverting Buck-Boost Converter. 2019 IEEE PES/IAS Power Africa, pp. 545–549, 2019, doi: 10.1109/PowerAfrica.2019.8928656.

Ç?nar SM, Akarslan E. On the design of an intelligent battery charge controller for PV panels. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review. 2012 Dec; 5(4):30–4. doi: 10.25103/jestr.054.06.

Simscape™ Electrical™ Reference (Specialized Power Systems) [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan11]. Available from:

Abd Alhussain HM, Yasin N. Modeling and simulation of solar PV module for comparison of two MPPT algorithms (P&O & Inc) in MATLAB/simulink. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 2020 May1; 18(2):666. doi: 10.11591/ijeecs.v18.i2.pp666-677.

Gao Y, Zhang X, Cheng Q, Guo B, Yang J. Classification and review of the charging strategies for commercial lithium-ion batteries. IEEE Access. 2019;7:43511–24. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2906117.

Solar SSIG 06 225 Datasheet [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022 Jan12]. Available from:

Nasir A, Hamad MS, Elshenawy AK. Design and Development of a Constant Current Constant Voltage Fast Battery Charger for Electric Vehicles. 4th International Conference on Modern Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, p. 13–55, 2021.

Bhutada SS, Nigam DSR. Single phase PV inverter applying a dual boost technology. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology. 2015 Jun1; 4(6):356–60. doi: 10.17950/ijset/v4s6/603.

Upadhyay N, Singh VK, Urooj S. Closed Loop Voltage Control Design for Photovoltaic Inverter. 3rd IEEE Conference Nanotechnology for Instrumentation and Measurement Workshop, 2017.

Soomro J, Memon TD, Shah A. Design and analysis of single phase voltage source inverter using Unipolar and Bipolar pulse width modulation techniques. 2016 International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering (ICAEES), pp. 277–282. doi: 10.1109/ICAEES.2016.7888052.

Aghenta LO, Iqbal MT. Design and dynamic modelling of a hybrid power system for a house in Nigeria. International Journal of Photoenergy. 2019 Apr30; 2019:1–13. doi: 10.1155/2019/6501785.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Mousavi, M. and Iqbal, M.T. 2021. Design and Dynamic Modelling of a Hybrid PV-battery System for a House with an RO Water Desalination Unit in Iran. European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 5, 6 (Dec. 2021), 77–89. DOI:

Most read articles by the same author(s)