European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/dergi_kapak2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="10"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJECE</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-9853</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Bimonthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">Â&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER -VOL. 2/ ISSUE 7, 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">Â&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 17px; margin: 6px;">SubmitÂ&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejece/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span></a>Â&nbsp;or byÂ&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span> to<br>Â&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>Â&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">Â&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> â–ºÂ&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJECE do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>Â&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of ElectricalÂ&nbsp;<strong>Engineering</strong> and Computer Science</strong>Â&nbsp;(EJECE) is a peer-reviewedÂ&nbsp;international journal publishes <strong>bimonthly</strong>Â&nbsp;full-length state-of-the-artÂ&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of <a href="/index.php/ejece/about/editorialPolicies#focusAndScope">Electrical Engineering and Computer Science</a></strong>.Â&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>Â&nbsp;</strong>EJECE is published by<strong>Â&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>Â&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong>Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">â–ºÂ&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>Â&nbsp;Â&nbsp;</strong>Â&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJECE provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for PlagiarismÂ&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJECEhas a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>Â&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/no_plagiarism.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving PolicyÂ&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJECEuses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures the long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>Â&nbsp;Â&nbsp;<strong>IndexingÂ&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJECE content is indexed withÂ&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>Â&nbsp;and assigned aÂ&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/indexing_policy21.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp;Â&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submission, the editor or editorial assistant sends an e-mail confirmation to the submission’s author within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next, a check for the similarity rate is done using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer review; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymousÂ&nbsp;to authors. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;Â&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.Â&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) DecisionÂ&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decisionÂ&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)Â&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.<span style="background-color: #ffffff;">Â&nbsp;</span></p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start copyediting process, <a href="/index.php/ejece/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>Â&nbsp;must be paid.Â&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step </em>1 :<em>Â&nbsp;Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a<span class="Apple-converted-space">Â&nbsp;</span><a href="">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts<span class="Apple-converted-space">Â&nbsp;</span><a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF Â&nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>Â&nbsp;Â&nbsp;</p> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.</p> (European Journal of Electrical Engineering&Computer Science) (support) Sat, 01 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 Evaluation of Distribution System Reliability Indices Using Fuzzy Reasoning Approach <p class="Abstract">The most fundamental problems in the distribution system are the quality, the continuity, and the power supply. Political and economic changes were accompanied by changes in the structure of the electric load in the distribution network. Lack of investment and aging of the distribution company assets was accompanied by a decrease in the reliability of the distribution system. Identification and classification of assets from the point of view of their maintenance and replacement was one of the problems that were posed to the engineers. Fuzzy logic can be successfully used to evaluate distribution system reliability indices. In this paper fuzzy logic is used to evaluate the distribution system reliability indices of lines and transformers using six input variables. These variables considered the most important are: Age, Operation, Maintenance, Electrical current loading, Exposure and Weather conditions (Wind or Temperature). The fuzzy inferences knowledge-based IF-THEN rule is developed using Matlab Fuzzy software. The detailed analysis of the fuzzy system surfaces shows that the factors taken in consideration are dynamically and accurately connected to each other. The constructed rules based in engineering experience accurately represent the Reliability Indices.</p> A. Paci, R. Bualoti, M. Çelo Copyright (c) 2021 A. Paci, R. Bualoti, M. Çelo Tue, 04 May 2021 04:34:02 -0400 Enhancing Detection Performance of Face Recognition Algorithm Using PCA-Faster R-CNN <p>In this paper, we present a new face detection scheme using deep learning and achieving state-of-the-art recognition performance using real-world datasets.&nbsp; We designed and implemented a face recognition system using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Faster R Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R CNN). In particular, we improve the state-of-the-art Faster RCNN framework by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique and Faster R CNN to detect and recognise faces in a face database.&nbsp; The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to extract features and dimensionality reduction from the face database, while the Faster R Convolutional Neural Network algorithm was used to identify patterns in the dataset via training the neural network. The three real-world datasets used in our experiment are ORL, Yale, and California face dataset. When implemented on the ORL face dataset, the algorithm achieved average recognition accuracy of 99%, with a recognition time of 147.72 seconds for 10 runs, and the recognition time/image was 0.3 sec/image on 400 images. The Yale face dataset achieved average recognition accuracy of 99.24% with a recognition time of 63.45 seconds for 10 runs, and the recognition time/image was 0.53 sec/image on 120 images. Finally, on California Face Database (CFD), it achieved average recognition accuracy of 99.52% with a recognition time of 226.05 seconds for 10 runs, and the recognition time/image was 0.27 sec/image on 827 images. On the CFD dataset, however, the proposed approach has excellent classification performance when the recall ratio is high. The proposed method achieves a higher recall and accuracy ratio than the Faster RCNN without PCA method. For the F-score, the proposed method achieved 0.98, which is significantly higher than the 0.95 achieved by the Faster-RCNN. This demonstrates the superiority of our model performance-wise as against state-of-the-art, both in terms of accuracy and fast recognition. Therefore our model is more efficient when compared to the latest researches done in the area of facial recognition.</p> Hashiru Isiaka Muhammad, Kabir Ibrahim Musa, Mustapha Lawal Abdulrahman, Abdullahi Abubakar, Kabiru Umar, Abdulhakeem Ishola Copyright (c) 2021 Hashiru Isiaka Muhammad, Kabir Ibrahim Musa, Mustapha Lawal Abdulrahman, Abdullahi Abubakar, Kabiru Umar, Abdulhakeem Ishola Tue, 11 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400 A Web-Based Aggregate Information Portal <p>A Web portal aggregates an array of information for a target audience and affords a variety of services including search engines, directories, news, e-mail, and chat rooms, and they have evolved to provide a customized gateway to Web information. Also, a high level of personalization and customization has been possible. The portal concept could further be established to function as a classy Web interface that can serves as sustenance for variety of the task performance. The aggregate information Web portal will serve as portals for the information needs of users on the web. The Web based portal enable marketing of users broadly across a wide variety of interests. Most of the popular usage of the Web based aggregate information portal probably refers to the visual and user interface (UI) design of a Web site. It is a crucial aspect since the visitor is often more impressed with looks of website and easy to use rather than about the technologies and techniques that are used behind the scenes, or the operating system that runs on the web server. In other words, it just does not matter what technologies that is involved in creating, when the site is hard to use and easy to forget. This paper explores the factors that must be painstaking during the design and development of a Web based aggregate information portal. Design as a word in the context of a Web application can mean many things. A working Web based aggregate information portal, <em>kaseremulticoncept</em> was developed to support the various users’ task performances. A number of technologies was studied and implemented in this research, which includes multi-tier architecture, server and client side scripting techniques and technologies such as PHP programming languages and relational databases such as MySQL, Structured Query language (SQL) and XAMPP Server.</p> Donatus I. Bayem, Henry O. Osuagwu, Chimezie F. Ugwu Copyright (c) 2021 Donatus I. Bayem, Henry O. Osuagwu, Chimezie F. Ugwu Wed, 12 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Effect of Backhaul Technologies on 3G Network Performance: A Case Study of Ado-Ekiti <p class="Abstract">In the past years, when wireless network improvement occurs from 1G/2G to third generation (3G), the rate in the use of real-time traffic oriented applications for voice, video and data increases. Consequently, the bandwidth to be backhauled from the cell site to the mobile switching center increases rapidly. 3G network is most prevalent in Nigeria with wide area of coverage. However, in recent times, poor subscribers’ mobile broadband experience is still the major challenge faced by many GSM operators. One of the major causes of this challenge is the use of wrong backhaul for radio access network (RAN). This lead to poor traffic throughput, high packet loss or frame loss at the cell edge. To overcome this challenge, the use of appropriate backhaul technology is crucial. Third Generation Partnership Program (3GPP) recommends the use of either asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or internet protocol (IP) as the backhaul technologies for its RAN. This paper presents the performance analysis and the comparison of the ATM RAN and IP RAN backhaul technologies using six different 3G sites (with 3G base stations) located at Ado local government area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The performance of each base station with different backhaul technology was evaluated in term of average maximum throughput per day. The effect of frame loss (for ATM RAN network) and packet loss (for IP RAN network) on traffic throughput were also analyzed. The comparison of the overall result analysis shows that the 3G base stations with IP-based RAN backhaul has better performance than the base station with ATM-based RAN backhaul.</p> S. T. Ayoola, Y. O. Olasoji, K. B. Adedeji, C. G. Olebu, S. A. Busari, J. J. Popoola Copyright (c) 2021 S. T. Ayoola, Y. O. Olasoji, K. B. Adedeji, C. G. Olebu, S. A. Busari, J. J. Popoola Thu, 13 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400 BESS Assisted Frequency Management for Black Start Process of Microgrid <p>This paper proposes a method for restoring the nominal frequency and improving the system recovery time using battery energy storage system (BESS) for an islanded microgrid (MG) which is operated by a black start unit (BSU). The frequency stability is controlled by varying the apparent power (MVA) rating of the BESS after simultaneously connecting with the BSU during the post fault scenarios. Simulations are performed on the IEEE Std. 399-1997 test MG using DIgSILENT PowerFactory. Results show that the nominal frequency of the system can be retained by connecting the BESS during the transient period and increasing the MVA rating up to a maximum value. Simulation results also show that with a higher distributed connection of the BESS units over the system, the frequency recovery time can be reduced.</p> Mushfiqul Ahmed, Ferdous Irtiaz Khan, S. M. Ishraqul Huq Copyright (c) 2021 Mushfiqul Ahmed, Ferdous Irtiaz Khan, S. M. Ishraqul Huq Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Estimation of Geoclimatic Factor for Nigeria through Meteorological Data <p class="Abstract">Geoclimatic factor variable is one of the most important radio climatic variables in the planning of the radio links in any region. A fade margin that takes into account multipath fading has to be incorporated in the link budget in the design of terrestrial line of sight communication system. This work involves the determination of the refractivity gradient over the first 100 m above ground level in Nigeria and by using the determined refractivity gradient, the geo-climatic factor (K) was calculated for typical links in Nigeria. The Geo-climatic factor (K) for the six major cities representing each geopolitical zone in Nigeria is determined in-order to improve future planning of the radio links in the regions. Measurement of meteorological parameters for five years taken in Ikeja, Lagos (Latitude 6º27´11´´N, Longitude 3º23´44´´E), Enugu (Latitude 6º27´35.8704´´N, Longitude 7º32´56.2164´´E), Kaduna (Latitude 10º31´23´´N, Longitude 7º26´25´´E), Port Harcourt (Latitude 4º47´21´´N, Longitude 6º59´54´´E), Kano (Latitude 12º3’N,Longitude 8º32´N) and Abuja (Latitude 9º10´32´´N Longitude 7º10´50´´E) were employed to estimate the country value of K. The pressure, P(hPa), temperature, T(ºC) and the relative humidity, (%), for the six location used were taken for a period of five years (2011-2015). The value of humidity were converted to water vapour pressure, e(hPa). In processing of the data, the average values of each month collected over a period of five years was used. The monthly data was used to calculate the values of the refractivity at the ground level and at 100 m altitude. From the calculated values of refractivity,the values of the refractivity gradient of heights of 65 m and at 100 m was computed and thereafter the geo-climatic factor (K) was calculated for the six geopolitical region of the country.</p> Ilesanmi B. Oluwafemi, Moses O. Olla Copyright (c) 2021 Ilesanmi B. Oluwafemi, Moses O. Olla Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Dynamic Modelling of a Solar Energy System with Vehicle to Home and Vehicle to Grid Option for Newfoundland Conditions <p class="Abstract">The dynamic modelling of a solar energy system with vehicle to home (V2H) and vehicle to grid (V2G) options for Newfoundland conditions is discussed in this paper. A site (13 Polina Road) was chosen in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. An optimized system was built for the chosen site using BEopt, Homer, and MATLAB software’s to meet the house's energy demand. Furthermore, smart current sensors installed in the house are used to incorporate the V2H and V2G concepts. The Nissan Leaf's battery is used to supply household loads in V2H operation mode when the power supplied by the PV panel and the storage energy in the inhouse battery is less than the load's energy demand. In V2G mode, the vehicle is only linked to grid. Along with the simulation results, detailed system dynamic modelling is also presented. There are nine different system control modes that are proposed and simulated.</p> Raghul Suraj Sundararajan, M. Tariq Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Raghul Suraj Sundararajan, M. Tariq Iqbal Sun, 13 Jun 2021 01:48:24 -0400 Cyber-Security: Dos Attack Outcomes are Dangerous <p class="Abstract">Dos attacks are an attractive and hot topic nowadays because it is very common for attackers to make a victim and exploit it. In this paper, different kinds of techniques and commands have implemented and contrast for the outcomes of these attacks. By performing, experiments problems are identified. By following experiments, the goal is prevention and mitigation of Dos attacks at large extent by knowing the outcomes of the attacks. For proving the work, different types of experiments are performed on different platforms and observed that Dos attacks are how dangerous to our systems. In this paper, hping3 and syn flooding are performed. Hping3 is used for sending packets in a modified, crafted form. It is the networking tool used by developers to perform a DOS attack. SYN flooding is used for sending so many requests in an insane amount to the server and used all of the resources of the server.</p> M. Mattah Islam, Saifullah Shahid, Khush  Bakhat Awar, Rashid Khan, Muhammad Sohail Copyright (c) 2021 M. Mattah Islam, Saifullah Shahid, Khush  Bakhat Awar, Rashid Khan, Muhammad Sohail Wed, 16 Jun 2021 13:52:49 -0400 Review on Emotion Recognition Using Facial Expressions <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 10.2pt;">The advent of artificial intelligence technology has reduced the gap between humans and machines as equips man to create more near-perfect humanoids. Facial expression is an important tool to communicate one’s emotions as a non-verbally overview of emotion recognition using facial expressions. A remarkable advantage of such a technique recently improved public security through tracking and recognizing, thus led to the high attention to keep up the scientific research in the field. The approaches used for facial expression include classifiers like Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Convolution Neural Network (CNN), Active Appearance and Machine learning which all used to classify emotions based on certain parts of interest on the face like lips, lower jaw, eyebrows, cheeks and many more. By comparison, the reviews have shown that the average accuracy of the basic emotion ranged from 51% up to 100%, whereas carrying through 7% to 13% in the compound emotions, hence indicated that the indispensable emotion is much comfortable to recognize.</p> Abozar Atya Mohamed Atya, Khalid Hamid Bilal Copyright (c) 2021 Abozar Atya Mohamed Atya, Khalid Hamid Bilal Wed, 12 May 2021 03:21:57 -0400